The Internet took several decades and the effort of a number of significant individuals to build. It now fuels a great deal of the processes of the world these days.
Leonard Kleinrock: Packet Switching
Imagine a system requiring you to have an individual phone line and modem for each person you want to talk to. This makes things a lot more expensive. Packet switching allows multiple users to connect using a single physical connection, rather than by multiple connections.
Leonard Kleinrock understood and applied this concept in the effort to replace the old circuit switching process. Packet switching, the concept that refers to the transfer of information online and relies solely on such a theory, is essential to the Internet.
Larry G. Roberts: Long-distance Computer Network
Larry G. Roberts created the first long-distance computer network. This is vital for the Internet, relying on the long-distance networks of computers in the distribution of data. He also initiated the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPANET), which later grew into the modern Internet.
Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf: Transmission Control
Data travels, consequently creating traffic. Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf saw this problem and came up with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). This is the closest thing to modern Internet technology. TCP controls the traffic of data and manages connections worldwide. These two geniuses could have produced the Internet by themselves. However, they did not create the other important components of modern Internet.
Radia Perlaman: Spanning Tree Algorithm
Any fine connection requires an excellent bridge to keep the data flow working to a maximum. Radia Perlaman built the spanning tree algorithm to create that bridge between separate networks. This allowed a good bridging solution, since the absence of such would render networks of this scale impractical.
Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau: The Internet You
Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau created the popular and well-liked application we know now, in the effort to make the Internet available to the public. They developed a user-friendly interface and a system to allow easy access to various types of information.