Category Archives: Microsoft Windows

NetBIOS Name

A NetBIOS name refers to a specific identifier which is used by NetBIOS Services present within a computer. NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) services enable commonly used software applications to communicate with network hardware.

A NetBIOS name is created during the installation of the operating system. When the user provides the computer’s name, the set up creates the NetBIOS name along with the host name. Both are based mainly on the computer name entered by the user.

A NetBIOS name has several characteristics. A NetBIOS name is created by an administrator to identify a particular NetBIOS server that is running on a TCP/IP host. It is not dependent on the host name. This means that the NetBIOS name does not need to match the host name. In addition, computer groups that provide network-related services also register NetBIOS names.

In terms of length, a NetBIOS name can have 15 characters or less. This is in contrast to DNS host names that contain around 255 characters. In certain operating systems such as Windows Server 2003, the NetBIOS name and the host name are created together. In this case, the NetBIOS name becomes the first 15 characters of the host name if the host name contains more than 15 characters.

A NetBIOS name should be unique on its network. When the user starts the computer, several services such as those for the server and for the work station would register a unique NetBIOS name based on the computer name.

A NetBIOS name lets users perform tasks easier. It simplifies the process of referencing to TCP/IP hosts. This is primarily because NetBIOS names are easier to remember than TCP/IP addresses.

Scan Disk

Scan Disk or SCANDISK is a maintenance tool used in the Microsoft Windows systems and in MS-DOS. It checks the hard drive of your computer for errors. Once it finds an error on the hard drive, it attempts to repair it.

These errors are caused by a number of reasons, which includes:

  • improperly closed applications
  • the presence of harmful programs such as viruses
  • system crashes

Scan Disk provides a report that contains the amount of disk space it has scanned and the number of errors it has found.

It is an important application because it ensures that all data in your hard drive are safe from being corrupted. This guarantees that your computer will perform at an optimum level of performance.

Brief History of Scan Disk

SCANDISK is the earliest version of Scan Disk introduced in MS DOS 6.2. Previous versions of scan disks were of the simpler and merely text-based program CHKDSK.

In Windows 95 and 98, SCANDISK was given a graphical user interface (GUI), which allows people to interact with electronic devices like hand-held devices, computers, office equipment and household appliances. In this graphical environment, the user can locate buttons, progress bars and information regarding the amount of disk space scanned and the number of errors if any.

The MS DOS program maintained the Text User Interface (TUI), to distinguish them from text based user interfaces.

The disk scanning utility of Windows XP, Windows 2000 and Windows NT is known as CHKDSK, which differs from MS-DOS CHKDSK. It is capable of checking NTFS disk drives. This version of Scan Disk can handle several physical errors and even recover data that are still readable.

How to Run Scan Disk in Windows 2000 and Windows XP

In Windows 2000 and Windows XP, you can run the Scan Disk program by performing the following steps:

  1. Click the Start menu
  2. Click My Computer
  3. Under Hard Disk Drives, highlight disk you want to scan
  4. Open the File menu and select Properties
  5. Open the Tools tab
  6. Click the Check Now… button

Running Scan Disk In Windows Vista

You can run the Scan Disk program in Windows Vista by performing the following steps:

  1. Click the Computer icon
  2. Right click the drive you want to scan and then select Properties
  3. Click on the Tools tab
  4. Click the Check Now button, which is under the Error-checking section.
  5. This will cause the Check Local Disk window to appear.

  6. If you want to check for errors, check the checkbox that states “Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors”
  7. Click Start

In Windows Vista, it is essential to schedule the Scandisk to make it run at boot time because Vista has mechanisms which do not allow it to run while the system is operating.


Microsoft Windows is a succession of software operating systems (OS) and graphical user interfaces. The primary version made available in November 1985 as an MS-DOS was an add-on to respond to the increase in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Windows uses a GUI, making way for easier and more convenient computer usage. Users navigate through the OS using the Start menu and desktop icons.

Microsoft Windows has come to dominate the global personal computer scene. Its prevalence overtook the earlier Mac OS. The newest client version is Windows Vista, while the newest version of the server is Windows Server 2008.

Microsoft targeted two markets with its Operating Systems. One focus is the home consumer and the other is the professional IT client. Home versions usually have wider support for multimedia and less utility for security and networking, while professional versions have less support for multimedia and more utility in terms of security and networking.

The earliest version of this OS was Microsoft Windows 1.0 released to compete with the then-current Apple OS, although very basic in functionality. It achieved modest popularity back then.

Windows 2.03, released in January 1988, changed the interface to overlying windows from tiled. This evolution led to a lawsuit against Microsoft from Apple Computers, alleging copyright infringement.

Windows 3.0, released in 1990, was the first Windows OS that achieved commercial success. It sold 2 million copies the first half-year of its release.

Microsoft released Windows Vista in January 2007. It contains new features, such as a revamped shell and redesigned user interface, as well as major technical changes with an emphasis on security.

Windows Log

The Windows Event Log is an automatic service functions as soon as the system starts up. Users can view the system’s application or system logs, while only administrators can access security logs. By default, the security logging process is turned off. This should be activated by the administrator to make sure that security logs are available.

Several logs must be monitored in the Windows Operating Systems. Some of these log types are:

  1. Application logs – events logged by applications in the system
  2. Security logs – records of valid/invalid log-on attempts and events that relate to resource use, such as the creation, opening, or deletion of files or similar objects. This log is customizable.
  3. System logs – contain system data on component events, such as driver or hardware issues
  4. File replication service logs – records of File Replication service events

Each log has different log sub-classes, such as errors, information, warnings, failure audits, and success audits. On a busy system or network, third-party automation tools may be necessary. Log files contain numerous hours logged and huge amount of megabytes rendering it reasonably impossible to monitor all logs in all networked computers (using limited resources).

Logging is a function that is relatively underused in most Windows networks. It is often used in emergencies to resolve events that were not pre-empted. Applications that consolidate log data are available. Furthermore, “intelligent” applications are recommended. These applications amass the logs and remove them from the remote client machines (to prevent clutter) and store them in an accessible manner for the inspection of security professionals.

For more information on windows log files read:

  • Windows Log Files
  • Windows Log Files
  • How to Speed up Windows Vista

    Make your Windows Vista run faster with these simple changes:

    Turn Off Remote Differential Compression

    Remote Differential Compression (RDC) is an algorithm that synchronizes two files by communicating the differences between them. It observes file changes in a network and synchronizes files that were changed independently. RDC’s constant checking of file changes slows down overall system performance. Shut down RDC and speed up overall system performance.

    • Access the Control Panel.
    • Change the view to ‘Classic’.
    • Click on ‘Program Features’.
    • Choose ‘Turn Windows Features On and Off’.
    • Click the box that unchecks Remote Differential Compression.

    Disable Windows Hibernation

    The background during the hibernation of your system uses a major portion of system resources. Disable the Hibernate feature to add performance gain to your Vista OS.

    • Access the Control Panel and ‘Power Options’.
    • Click on ‘Change Plan Settings’.
    • Access ‘Change Advanced Power Settings’.
    • Click on the ‘Sleep’ selection.
    • Access the Hibernate After selection.
    • Adjust the selector to zero.
    • Apply.

    Turn Off Windows Search Indexing

    Windows Vista search indexing constantly checks files in the system to make the data easily available for searching. Search Indexing can be helpful but it also slows down system performance. Turn off constant indexing.

    • Select ‘Start’ then click on ‘My Computer’.
    • Right-click C: drive.
    • Go to the ‘General’ tab, and uncheck ‘Index’.

    Shut Off Automatic Disk Defragmentation

    Windows Vista uses a defragmentation setup that is constantly ‘ON.’ This is unnecessary and will cause the system to slow down. Disable this feature.

    • Select ‘Start’ and then click on ‘My Computer’.
    • Right-click C: drive.
    • Access the ‘Tools’ tab.
    • Click the box that unchecks ‘Run on a Schedule’.

    Add a USB Flash Drive for Windows Ready Boost

    For easy-access memory for the OS, Ready Boost can use a USB flash drive. The Ready Boost process can significantly improve the speed of your system. Set up Windows Ready Boost.

    • Plug-in a USB flash drive.
    • Select ‘Start’ and then ‘My Computer’.
    • Right-click on the USB drive.
    • Choose ‘Ready Boost’.
    • Click on ‘Use This Device’.
    • Choose the optimal amount of space that is available (storage vs. RAM usage).

    How to Uninstall Vista

    Windows Vista is Microsoft’s most advanced operating system (OS). In spite of its being the most recent, other versions are considered to be more stable by many users. Many users have computers not powerful enough or are improperly configured. This may cause the OS not to function optimally.

    Windows XP upgraded to Vista:

    1. Go to BIOS settings. Make sure that the CD-ROM drive is set to highest drive priority. This ensures that the MS-DOS boot CD loads up before Vista.
    2. Restart the computer with the boot CD in the drive. Type or select “R” in the setup menu.
    3. Type in ‘fixboot X:\’ with ‘X’ being the drive letter of the Vista root.
    4. Type in ‘fixmbr X:\’ then press enter. Type ‘EXIT.’ Close the setup program and then restart the computer. When restarting, make sure that the boot CD is in the CD-ROM drive.
    5. Reformat the hard drive by typing in ‘format X:\’. Upon completion of the reformat, restart the computer. Ensure that the XP installation CD is in the CD-ROM drive.
    6. Follow the directions in the installation menu to install Windows XP.

    Windows Vista pre-loaded:

    Pre-loaded Windows Vista OS can be uninstalled from a new computer and replaced with any choice of OS. The process will be the same with the previous scenario. Simply follow the steps in the section preceding.

    Dual-boot System (Windows Vista + another OS on the same hard drive, e.g. XP):

    1. Start up computer, and select ‘Windows XP.
    2. Launch Vista by inserting the installer DVD into the appropriate drive.
    3. Go to the start menu and click on ‘Run.’ Type in ‘e:\boot\bootsect.exe /nt52 ALL /force.’ ‘E’ is the DVD-ROM drive for the Vista DVD.
    4. Restart the computer. Choose ‘Windows XP’ in the boot menu. The drive that Vista was installed in will be reformatted.
    5. Delete ‘Bootsect.bak’ and ‘Boot.bak’ in the XP root folder.
    6. For more information on How to uninstall vista read:

    7. How to Uninstall Vista
    8. Uninstall Vista

    How to Access the Windows Vista Administrator

    The Windows Vista Administrator account is hidden and disabled on clean installs of the default operating system. It cannot be found in the User Accounts Control (UAC) panel.

    The Computer Management portion of the Administrative Tools Control (ATC) panel gives the user access to the Administrator account. While you activate the Administrator account, you also have to disable other accounts using computer administrator privileges. The instructions on how to activate the Administrator account are given below.

    Boot the computer to Vista in the Computer Administrator account. Go to the ATC panel. Double-click on “Computer Management.” Click on “Continue” to authorize UAC. Double-click on “Local Users and Groups” then click on “Users”.

    In the Computer Management portion are the icons for all user accounts in the computer. Note that the disabled accounts have red circles with “X” marks.

    Click on the Administrator icon. Right-click on this icon to access the menu. Choose “Properties.” Click on the check mark in “Account is Disabled” to remove the mark. Click on “OK” and restart the computer.

    Now there are two ways to gain access to the Administrator. Which one you should choose depends on the mode you’re going to use.

    1. Method 1
      • Press F8 as Windows starts up. In a dual-boot system, select “Microsoft Windows” in the boot menu using the arrow or tab keys. Press F8 to enter Safe Mode. Press Enter.
      • Vista will display the log-in screen. Two options (“Administrator” and “Other User”) will be shown. Click on the Administrator icon.
      • Administrator access in Safe Mode is best for quick access to this account.

    2. Method 2
    3. This method allows full Administrator privileges in normal boot mode (not Safe Mode).

      • Enable the Administrator in Computer Management as instructed above.
      • Disable other enabled accounts having computer administrator privileges (icons without the red disable mark). Follow the aforementioned steps to open “Properties” while adding a check mark in the “Account is Disabled” box.
      • Double-check to ensure that the Administrator account is enabled. Close Computer Management and restart the OS. Once Windows reboots, the Administrator account will load automatically, as there is no password.
      • After looking through the Administrator account, re-enable the user accounts and disable the Administrator. This method should be not be used on a regular basis for security reasons.
      • If access to the Administrator account is for the purpose of bypassing UAC, a safer process would be to use any account with computer administrator privileges. Go to and open the UAC panel. Click on “Change Security Settings” and “Turn User Account Control On or Off.” Finally, turn off UAC on the next screen.

    How to Register DLL Modules

    A DLL file can be indexed on the OS registry through several ways. The first way is done through self-registering. This process can be carried out by DLL files that can store themselves on the registry of the operating system. Once registered, these files can immediately be accessed by the applications that need them. Self-registering DLL files do not require human intervention and are the most common type of DLL modules.

    Another way to register DLL files is done through a set of manual procedures. These are the following:

    • Determine the exact location of your DLL file.
    • Click on the Start Menu and select the Run option
    • In the Run dialog box, key in the word Regsvr32 followed by the path and filename of the DLL file enclosed in quotations then press Enter.

    (example: Regsvr32 “C:\Windows\System32\YourFile.dll”)

    After successfully registering the DLL module, the computer will show a message box informing you that the DLL file has been successfully registered.

    The registration of these DLL files is very important. A DLL, or Dynamic Link Library, is one of the most frequently used components of a Windows operating system. This type of file contains a collection of functions that consists of shared data that can be accessed by several applications. DLL files are relatively small in terms of file size. In most cases, they use only a minimal amount of RAM resources. This means once a program is loaded, it normally calls upon a number of DLL files that can be used not only by the said application but also by other programs.

    For a DLL file to properly perform its embedded set of functions, it initially needs to be registered in the system. This is a process where the computer recognizes the DLL file and associates it with certain applications. This means it is very necessary for you to register a DLL as because you will not be able to use its functions if it was excluded from the Windows System Registry.

    How DirectX SDK Works

    DirectX SDK (DirectX Software Development Kit) is a set of tools consisting of all the DirectX programs and tools necessary for the development of DirectX games. It allows game developers to take total advantage of DirectX programs to create fascinating graphic applications and games. It also enables game developers to use the most recent innovations in hardware.

    The key tools that compose DirectX SDK are DirectX SDK libraries and headers, DirectX API (Application Programming Interface) Documentation, DirectX runtimes, source codes, and sample applications. Previously, DirectX SDK was updated every two months with improved tools and additional samples. Just recently, Microsoft has started releasing updates four times a year.

    Beginners using DirectX SDK should begin with the DirectX documentation pages and samples to learn more about this technology and its interesting techniques. Experienced game developers should also check on the “What’s New” section of the documentation file for up-to-date news and tips.

    One of the vital features incorporated in the DirectX SDK is the D3DX (Direct 3DX) library. It is a toolkit offering advanced functionality. It integrates both the basics, such as low-level routines and math, and advanced technology for controlling art content. Updated mechanisms include Pre-Computed Radiance Transfer (PRT), mesh optimization, and tangent frame generation.

    The D3DX Effects Framework and the High Level Shading Language (HLSL) enable graphic and game developers to employ state-of-the-art technology in shading. D3DXsamples. It also shows how to create exquisite visuals. Newer DirectX SDKs contain more samples that aid developers in learning more about Windows localization, security, configuration, and many others.

    Another remarkable element incorporated in DirectX SDK is PIX for Windows. It is an application that helps developers assess their application and verifies if the use of D3D is maximized. It enables developers to test out each graphic and to visualize the setting.

    Some of the most recent updates incorporated in DirectX 9.0 SDK are XInput, Microsoft Cross-Platform Audio Creation Tool (XACT), Direct3D 10 Technology Preview, and a Beta version of Windows Vista Game Explorer.

    Error 734 – The PPP Link Control Protocol Was Terminated

    Error 734 is an error that comes up when using Point-to-Point Protocol. It is frequently linked with workstation connection with a wide region network connection or an Internet provider.

    This error can also take place when the Security tab, which is located in Windows NT’s dial-up networking Modem Properties, is programmed to send encrypted passwords and the Internet service provider does not recognize these passwords.

    The precise error message is usually “Error 734 – The PPP link control protocol was terminated”.

    The Cause of the Problem

    Error 734 usually occurs because there is an error in verification. Normally, the Password or Username used to verify the initiation of the connection is incorrect.

    How to Solve the Problem

    Here are some solutions that might help you in solving Error 734:

    1. You need to validate if the Password and Username you are using is correct. Some log-ins are case-sensitive, which means that you need to check and make sure that the caps-lock key is not on.
    2. If you have a correct Password and Username, you could be conveying Windows domain certificates to sites where you do not want to go to. You can avoid this by performing the following steps:
      • Click the Start button on your computer.
      • Select the Connect To key.
      • Go to the connection used for dial-up services.
      • Click Properties.
      • Hit the Options tab.
      • Uncheck, if the Include Windows log-on domain checkbox is checked.
      • Click OK.

    3. When a secured password is in use for authentication but the remote server does not permit it to function, do the following steps to fix it:
      • Go to the Start menu.
      • Click Connect To.
      • Hit the connection used for dial-up services.
      • In the appearing Connect dialog box, Select Properties.
      • Select the Security tab.
      • In the Security section under the Validate my identity as follows, Click Allow unsecured password.
      • Click OK.

    4. When using a single-link connection but a multi-link negotiation is turned on, do the following steps:
      • Go to the Start menu.
      • Click Settings.
      • Select Network and Dial-up Connections.
      • Right click the dial-up connection button, then hit Properties.
      • Push the Networking tab then select Settings.
      • If there is a check mark on the Negotiate multi-link for single link connections, hit it to uncheck it.
      • To finish, push the OK button twice.
      • Test connection again to find out the right configuration.

    Error 678 – The Remote Computer Is Not Responding

    Error 678 normally occurs in Windows XP when a remote system is not responding accurately and properly. This error is specifically seen when using dial-up, broadband, or VPN connections, but is not common in connections using the telephone system. The exact error message is usually “Error 678 – There was no answer.” It can also occur in other Operating Systems, such as Windows 98, Windows ME or Windows 2000, although seldom.

    Errors When Using Dial-up systems

    An Error 678 that has occurred when using a dial-up system signifies that the line is ringing, but the remote system is not responding properly to the call.

    You have to check the number you are calling and make sure that the number is correct. You then turn on your modem speaker, which can either be external or internal. The solution to the problem usually depends upon the type of modem used.

    • If the modem speaker is external, you can activate the speaker to listen to the connection using the toggle switches on the modem chassis. It is important to check the manual of the modem because the operation is usually different for each modem type.
    • If the modem speaker is internal and it supports the Hayes modem command set, you can activate your modem speaker by performing the following steps:
      1. Activate the Start button on your computer.
      2. Activate Settings.
      3. Click on Control Panel.
      4. Click the Phone and Modem Options on your computer.
      5. Select the Modems tab.
      6. Select the modem you use for the connection.
      7. Click Properties.
      8. Click the Advanced tab.
      9. Record your initialization string, ensuring that you can return it to your original value later.
      10. Add M0 in the initialization string.
      11. Try your connection again for configuration. If you continue to hear only the phone ringing and the error persists, you need to locate another telephone number for your provider or contact your provider for further assistance.

    Errors Using the Broadband Connections

    An Error 678 that happens when using a broadband connection signifies that your TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) stack is corrupted and needs to be restored.

    To solve the problem, you need to perform the following steps:

    1. Restart your computer then wait until all services and applications are finished loading before trying to connect again.
    2. When using Windows XP, you can use the “netsh command” to reset your TCP/IP interfaces.
      • From the Start menu, select the Run option.
      • In the pop up box, type in cmd.
      • Click the OK button on the screen.
      • When the command window will appear, type in “netsh interface IP reset log.txt” .
      • Click the Enter button.
      • Type Exit in the command window then hit the enter button.
      • Restart your computer and try again.

    3. You can also reinstall your adapter drivers or TCP/IP drivers when the above resolutions don’t function well.

    Error 678 In VPN Connections

    Error 678 is mostly experienced when using a VPN connection with Windows 2000. You need a hot fix to solve the problem. You have to download the latest service pack from Microsoft. If you continue to experience the problem, you can contact Microsoft for support. However, Microsoft may charge a certain fee when you ask for assistance.

    DHCP Relay Agent

    The DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Relay Agent is used to connect DHCP servers and DHCP clients which are on different networks.

    It allows DHCP broadcast messages to be transmitted over routers that do not support the transfer of these types of messages. Therefore, the DHCP Relay Agent is the routing protocol that allows the DHCP server, which is on a remote subnet or not located on the local subnet, to send IP addresses to a DHCP client.

    A DHCP Relay Agent can be used by the following systems:

    • Windows Server 2003
    • Windows 2000 Server
    • Windows NT Server

    What Is A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol?

    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network service used by networked devices or clients. It runs at the application layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack.

    It is used to provide computer systems with an automatic allocation for IP addresses, as well as other IP parameters necessary for operation in an Internet Protocol network.

    This includes default gateway IP addresses, WINS IP addresses, DNS IP addresses, and subnet mask information.

    DHCP reduces the workload in the system administration by allowing devices to be added to the network with little or no manual configurations.

    This protocol employs client-server architecture, which means that the software needed to transfer the service is configured in two parts:

    • A client requesting the service
    • A server providing the service

    DHCP Lease Process

    The DHCP server is put together with a predetermined list of IP addresses or scopes. When the DHCP client starts up on the network, the DHCP lease process between the DHCP server and client begins. During this process, the DHCP server allocates IP addresses to DHCP clients.

    This process consists of four messages sent between the DHCP client and the DHCP server. They are as follows:

    • DHCPDISCOVER message. This message is transmitted by a client to request for an IP address lease from a DHCP server. It is sent as a broadcast packet, requesting for a DHCP server to respond to it.
    • DHCPOFFER message. It is the answer to a DHCPDISCOVER message. This message is sent by one or several DHCP servers.
    • DHCPREQUEST message. This message specifies that the client is requesting the particular IP address for lease.
    • DHCPACK message. It is an acknowledgement message wherein the DHCP server assigns the IP address lease to the DHCP client.

    Configuring DHCP Relay Agent

    DHCPDISCOVER message is a broadcast message which can only be transmitted to other segments when they are explicitly routed. Therefore, the DHCP Relay Agent must be configured on the router interface. This will enable all DHCPDISCOVER messages to be forwarded to the DHCP server.

    Configuring DHCP Relay Agents will enable DHCP clients to obtain IP addresses from a DHCP server on a remote subnet. As a result, DHCP broadcast messages can be relayed by the DHCP server.

    In cases where it hasn’t been configured, DHCP clients can only obtain IP addresses from the DHCP server on the same subnet.

    The process for configuring the DHCP Relay Agent is as follows:

    1. Enabling Routing and Remote Access Server (RRAS)
      • Click the Start menu
      • Click All Programs
      • Click Administrative Tools
      • Click Routing and Remote Access to open the Routing And Remote Access console
      • Right-click the node of the server
      • Choose the Configure And Enable Routing and Remote Access from the shortcut menu to launch the Routing and Remote Access Server Setup Wizard
      • Click Next on the initial page of the wizard
      • Select the Custom Configuration option on the Configuration page then click Next
      • Enable the LAN Routing checkbox on the Custom Configuration page then click Next
      • Verify configuration settings on the Summary page
      • Click Finish
      • Click Yes when asked to start the RRAS service

    2. Installing the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Relay Agent routing protocol
      • Open the Routing And Remote Access console
      • Expand the IP Routing node in the console tree.
      • Right-click the General node.
      • Select New Routing Protocol from the shortcut menu to open the New Routing Protocol dialog box
      • Select DHCP Relay Agent
      • Click OK

    3. Configuring the properties of DHCP Relay Agent
      • Click the Start menu
      • Click All Programs
      • Click Administrative Tools
      • Click Routing and Remote Access to open the Routing And Remote Access console
      • Expand the IP Routing node in the console tree.
      • Right-click the DHCP Relay Agent button.
      • Select Properties from the shortcut menu,
      • Type the IP address of the DHCP server in the Server Address text box located on the General tab
      • Click Add
      • Repeat the above step for each DHCP server that you have to add
      • Click OK

    4. Configuring DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Relay Agent on the router interface to forward DHCP broadcast messages
      • Click the Start menu
      • Click All Programs
      • Click Administrative Tools
      • Click Routing and Remote Access to open the Routing And Remote Access console
      • Expand the IP Routing node
      • The DHCP Relay Agent button is then right-clicked
      • Select New Interface from the shortcut menu.
      • Select the interface that is on the same subnet as the DHCP clients
      • Click OK
      • On the General tab, select the Relay DHCP Packets checkbox
      • Change the Boot Threshold values and Hop-Count Threshold
      • Click OK

    5. Viewing statistical information on the operation of the DHCP Relay Agent
      • Click the Start menu
      • Click All Programs
      • Click Administrative Tools
      • Click Routing and Remote Access to open the Routing And Remote Access console
      • Select the DHCP Relay Agent button
      • View the statistical information that is presented in the details pane of the Routing And Remote Access console
      • i. Received requests

        ii. Received replies
        iii. Discarded requests
        iv. Discarded replies