Category Archives: Miscellaneous


The symbol dBm means the same as dB. They stand for decibel, a unit of measure which is used to describe the amount of power used in every minute circuit. The entire telecommunications system uses the dBm for measuring radio and audio frequencies in computer bandwidth, telephone calls, television or radio broadcasts, and other kinds of electronic transmissions.

dBm is used to label the strength of the RF and AF frequency signals, which pass through cables and wires. This is a method of quantifying input or output signals in amplifiers and receivers. In relation to this, there are other kinds of wireless equipment that use the RF fields, examples of which are cellular and cordless phones and two-way radio.

The Formula

dBm is a measurement with an absolute ratio signal of 1 milliwatt per zero dBm. A dBm with a minus sign denotes a loss and a plus or no sign before the dBm symbol denotes a gain. Refer to the set of expressions below:

1. 0 dBm = 1 mW (milliwatt)

2. (-)dBm = loss whereas; (+)dBm = gain.

Also, the dBm equivalent of an audio signal is computed using the following mathematical equation: dBm = log10 Signal Power / .001 watt

Decibel Calculation

There are various forms of expressing decibels. For clarity, the above figure, normally used to compute intensity or power, is tagged as dBm. Using decibel to measure is better because it can state the power level by arithmetically adding or subtracting minute circuit signals. Hence, it is capable of expressing values that are either very large or very small.

Systems That Use dBm

The principal kinds of networks that use dBm calculation on a regular basis are the microwave, fiber optic and radio networks. Using this measurement makes it easier for each type of network to calculate data. They are able to compute the losses or gains of signals sent from a transmitter into a receiver. This helps guarantee that the total wattage utilized by the network stays around the allowable quantity. The power threshold is always controlled under the limit, so that only the energy necessary for the operation is produced.

Ordinary consumers may not really comprehend the use of dBm. However, they reap the concrete results of its use with the availability of a wide range of telecommunication media today.

PDF Editor

A PDF (Portable Document Format) editor is a program that allows a user to edit PDF files. PDF Editors allow a user to write comments on PDF documents and share these documents with others. These programs can also supplement or edit the content of PDF files. Aside from this, PDF Editors can help in filling out electronic forms and correcting spelling errors.

What is a PDF?

PDF is a portable document format developed by Adobe systems. The file extension for this kind of document is .pdf. These documents are virtual booklets used for simple scanning and reading. Several pages can be saved as one PDF file. The format is often used for distributing electronic books, or e-books. This is because several pages can be compressed into a single file, and access to the file can be restricted, preventing changes in the text.

Adobe Reader is the default program for opening and reading this kind of document. This program can only view PDFs. Separate programs are needed to in making and editing PDF files.

PDF Editors

PDF Editors can save files in the PDF format. The specific tools and capabilities of the programs depend on the individual software. Most editors can take word documents and text and convert them into PDFs. Some have limited text-writing capabilities.

PDF files can be sectioned into chapters so that users will only have to click a tab to go to an individual section. Users can customize the table of contents so that they can easily access these sections.

Some programs allow users to create links so that parts of the document can be clicked on to get to another part of the file. Users can format and highlight the document, and they can add comments as well.

Users can restrict access to the file so that it cannot be edited by other users. Pictures and tables can also be included in the file. Some editors also offer basic capabilities for adjusting document lay-outs.

When choosing a PDF Editor program, the user should consider what it will be used for. He should check the amount of space available in his system and compare it to the requirements of the software. Most editors require minimal resources, but their size may also be a deciding factor. Most commercially available programs offer trial periods and versions allowing users to try them out. There are also some programs which can be downloaded for free.

Additional Resources


Torrent is a a new trend in peer-to-peer data transmission. It entails a procedure of facilitating fast downloads of big files even with minimal Internet bandwidth. Torrent maximizes file transfer speed by collecting pieces of the file from different sources and downloading all simultaneously. These documents are directly gathered from other users who have filed them previously. Torrent is the fastest method for downloading large files.

The Tracker Site

Torrent uses a central site to manage files downloaded by the users. The site is actually a tracker to which the user can hook-up to when he to download a .torrent file. The tracker site monitors all stations holding a file and connects all users to one another so downloading and uploading becomes faster. It coordinates the movements of all users but does not know the contents being shared among them.

It Works Impressively

The Torrent network works with remarkable speed and with impressive reliability. It can get the user all files in the latest release as long as there are enough people sharing the connection.

There are different terminologies used in the Torrent network. Some of these are peer, seed, and leech. A peer refers to a participant in the swarm. In other instances, it is known as a client. A peer can either have a part or the complete file and the user can exchange data with it.

A seed is another peer that has a complete file of the torrent. If there are many seeds in the connection, the chances of completing the file are higher.

A leech has the smallest contribution to the swarm. He takes in many files but shares very few to other peers. After a leech completes a download, he doesn’t leave a chance for other peers to seed the particular file. He is thus branded a leech among the peers.

p>Leeching happens when seeders intentionally keep back a specific piece of data. Clients can usually download all parts of the file except the last portion. This prevents a large number of possible seeders from receiving an important file. Users can locate an index site to view the list of seeders and leechers in an archive.

Dell BIOS Password

BIOS is the Basic Input/Output System of the computer. It is the first program that loads when you start the computer. It allows all the other processes in the system to run. BIOS is present in a number of computers and laptops, including those manufactured by Dell. Users can install a password in the BIOS so that the minute the program starts, it asks for a security password. This is ideal if several users are using the same computer. The default password is provided by the manufacturer.

Some people want to bypass passwords because they want to open their computers faster. There are also cases when the computer asks for a BIOS password that the user doesn’t know. These passwords may also be required to unlock protected hard disks.

It is a bit difficult to bypass the BIOS passwords of Dell computers. You will have to go through a long process before you are able to effectively change the password.

Dell Dimension

Start by looking for the 3-pin CMOS password reset jumper, located on your system board. This will require you to open up the computer. If you are not confident in your abilities to work on a computer from the inside, then you should hire a professional technician to do this for you. Take out your jumper plug from your pins, labeled 1 and 2. Position your plug on the second and third pins. Wait for around ten seconds after that. Change your plug on the first pin and the second pin.

The whole process requires you to know the Dimension User Guide properly. Otherwise, you might get the wrong parts and cause structural damage just by tinkering around.

Dell Optiplex

This is a more difficult way of resetting your password. This system is more advanced and the process takes more time and effort.

You will have to remove your password jumper. To do this, you have to locate it. You can do this by reading the User Guides that come with the computer.

Again, look for the 3-pin CMOS password reset jumper, located on your system board. Remember: you have to be very careful so as not to damage the rest of the system. You will have to get rid of the jumper plug from the first and second pins. Assemble this plug on the second and third pins. Wait for a minute or so before replacing your plug on the first and second pins.

Each system has a different type of jumper plug. Some systems may even require you to replace the security chip of the laptop.

For more information on Dell BIOS Password read:

  • Dell BIOS Password
  • Dell BIOS Password
  • Bypass Websense

    The Concept of “Websensing”

    Whenever a user attempts to access a specific website, a request is produced and is forwarded through a firewall. Websense checks this request and allows access if the requested URL is in the database of the software. Websense relies on the fact that the firewall will pass the request in a single time. If the whole request is not forwarded at one time, the software would not allow the packet to pass, as the packet does not seem like an HTTP request.

    While Websense is helpful in filtering access to certain websites, it can also be bypassed to visit popular websites.

    Bypassing Websense Through a Web Proxy

    One simple method employed to bypass Websense is the use of Web-based proxy sites. With a proxy, Websense would think you are browsing on the Web proxy and not on the website you are actually browsing. The reason why these proxies can bypass the software is the ‘S’ in the HTTP address (https://). The ‘S’ signifies secure connection and the software does not block such secured sites. Using Web proxies is the easiest way to bypass Websense as it takes just a little time.

    Here are the steps to bypass Websense through a Web proxy:

    1. Find a proxy site. You can access the proxy site, and then access the restricted site through the proxy. You can otherwise use a program called vpntunnel to run programs like games and BitTorrent.

    2. Once you are able to access a proxy site, key in the URL that you want to visit in the space provided for in the proxy site. If you are using vpntunnel, install and log in with the program.

    Since Websense updates the list of blocked proxies from time to time, you should join a mailing list to be updated on which proxies are already blocked by Websense.

    Bypassing Websense Through HTTP Tunneling

    Another way to bypass Websense is through HTTP Tunneling programs that work well in bypassing Websense. Most of these programs have options to delete the user’s history of Internet-related activities on Windows. With HTTP Tunneling programs, you are ensured of comfort and security with your activities on the Internet. You can also spoof the information on your Web browser to help prevent hacking activities. You can download HTTP Tunneling programs from the Internet. Downloading these programs is easy and inexpensive.