Category Archives: Databases

Front Side Bus

In computer lingo, Front Side Bus, or FSB, is a bus that brings data from the Northbridge to the CPU and vice-versa. The speed with which the data is transferred depends on the ability of the specific hardware used.

FSB Usage and History

FSB is the alternative name for data and address buses in the CPU, defined by the datasheet produced by the manufacturer. This is associated with several CPU buses used on the motherboards, but seldom with data and buses used in the embedded systems.

The FSB serves like a connection between the CPU and the chipset. The Chipset is divided into the Northbridge and Southbridge, and serves as a connection point for the other buses within the system. Buses like the ACP and PCI connect to this chipset in order for data to stream within devices. The secondary buses are usually moved at speeds that are taken from a front side bus clock, but are not essentially synchronous.

Many manufacturers used to publish FSB’s speed in MT/s (megatransfers per second). This changed and they started to publish it in megahertz, mainly because the transfers can be executed in each cycle in clock frequency.


The FSB has the advantage of high flexibility and low cost. There is no hypothetical limit to the numbers of CPUs that can be connected to the FSB, though its performance will certainly be impaired.


Utilizing an FSB is a tradition that is slowly disappearing. This bus used to be a central connection for all the system devices and the CPU, but it has waned with the increased usage of point-to-point buses. The FSB has been recently criticized by AMD as a slow and old technology.

A slow Front Side Bus may be a hindrance and may cause a supposedly fast CPU to slow down. A CPU can actually perform individual instructions quickly, but if it cannot catch data and instructions as fast as it can execute them because of its connection to a slow FSB, the CPU speed is wasted. When this occurs, the CPU is required to wait one or more clock cycles before the memory is able to return its value. A fast CPU may also be delayed when it has to access other devices attached to the FSB.

Stored Procedure

A stored procedure refers to a collection of SQL commands that have been compiled and stored in the database server. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a language used to define and manipulate data from a database.

A stored procedure mainly serves client applications. Once the SQL commands making up the stored procedure have been saved, the client applications may utilize the stored procedure multiple times. The applications can do this without having to send the stored procedure back to the database server. Also, the applications do not have to compile the stored procedure again after each use.

Stored procedures allow client programs to use variables in performing commands. These variables are then utilized and/or modified by stored procedures to give more exact results.

Several network processes make use of stored procedures. Work stations use stored procedures in validating data. Client applications use commands contained in stored procedures to make sure that the data they receive is accurate and correct. Client programs also use the commands in a stored procedure to set the degree of access being given to other devices in the network.

Stored procedures present a number of benefits to the network. Since client applications within work stations have to access the stored procedure only once, network traffic is lessened. This results to improved network flow and availability of resources. Stored procedures also contribute in minimizing the CPU load of client stations because it does not require much activity and processor resources within the work station. Stored procedures can be implemented in a number of programming languages such as Java, C, and C++.

Additional Reading on Stored Procedures


JDBC stands for Java Database Connectivity. It is an Application Programming Interface (API) of JavaSoft. JDBC allows different types of Java-based applications to access database management systems.

JDBC consists of a collection of classes and interfaces that were written and developed in the Java programming language. Using the classes and interfaces included in JDBC, a programmer can create an application that connects to a database. Once an application has been connected to the database, the programmer can use the Structured Query Language or SQL to send queries to the database and process the results that will be produced by the said statements. JDBC also lets the programmer use SQL to insert, update, and delete data found in the database he is working on.

JDBC enables a programmer to create one application that can run on several platforms and interact with various database management systems. This is because Java programs run in most platforms and almost all relational database management systems support the Structured Query Language.

JDBC can be compared to Open Database Connectivity or ODBC because both are examples of APIs and are used to access database systems. However, JDBC is designed specially for Java programs. This is in contrast to ODBC, which is not dependent on a particular language.

To adhere to the standards of the Java programming language, the components of JDBC are consistent with the core classes and interfaces such as java.awt and java.lang. JDBC, however, requires that the database management system should have a JDBC driver.